I still remembered Karen Agustiawan’s speech about energy security in Indonesia last year. The ex-CEO of Pertamina (an Indonesian state-owned oil and natural gas corporation) said that Indonesia is still not safe about its national energy security, even though this country has a lot of natural resources. The main problem is more than 50% of the energy needs per day is imported from another country. According to data in 2014 the energy demand (oil and natural gas) is about 1.64 million barrels per day, but in other hand the national production is just about 788 thousand barrel per day. Then what to do?
The main problems of sustainable energy in Indonesia are being too dependent on fossil energy and low electrification rate in rural area. Dependence on fossil energy brings a lot of impact to the national economy and environmental. Besides of that, the rise in global crude oil prices often influences government policy in terms of the welfare of the people. Indonesia is an archipelago country with more than 17,000 thousand islands in it. This leads to the problem of electricity distribution in rural areas, especially in eastern Indonesia. Electrification rate is 45% of the 35 million people that live in this area. This ratio is quite low when compare with the national average that reached 80.1%. (ESDM, 2013)
There are two important solutions to the sustainable energy in Indonesia. The first is encouragement for the use of energy efficiency. Energy efficiency will increase resource productivity and support economic growth. The last is improvement in the use of renewable energy. Renewable energy not only fosters economic growth and improves energy security, but can also minimize the environmental impact because of pollution.
Taking a consideration in the sustainable energy will bring many economic benefits and prevent the environment global becomes worse. In the end, we will face the earth kept clean and pleasant for living in the future.